Here is some of the most important and recent research about the state of greed in the world and it’s dire consequences for all levels of humanity, including many who are extremely wealthy.
- Oxfam International’s executive director, Winnie Byanima, said,
“The richest one percent own more than the other 99 percent put together…’The world has become a much more unequal place and the trend is accelerating’” . She also said in a statement, “The billionaire boom is not a sign of a thriving economy but a symptom of a failing economic system.”
- 8 of the richest billionaires own more wealth than the bottom half of the world.
- In 2017，82% of all new wealth went to the top 1% while the bottom 50% got nothing according to research by Christian aid agency Oxfam that has been reported by many others.
- In America, the top 3 richest people have more wealth than the bottom 50% of the country.
- “More than two-thirds of the world’s entire wealth will be owned by the richest 1% of people by 2030, new research warns. . . The study claims that the wealth of the richest one percent grows at six percent annually, outstripping the three percent annual growth of everyone else, causing a continual movement of money to the top…Byrne, who organised the first OECD global parliamentary conference on inclusive growth, said he believed global inequality was “now at a tipping point”.“If we don’t take steps to rewrite the rules of how our economies work, then we condemn ourselves to a future that remains unequal for good,” he said. “That’s morally bad, and economically disastrous, risking a new explosion in instability, corruption and poverty.”
You can read of the tragic history about how some of this injustice that underlies all others came about here:
These facts show that we have the the worst level of inequality in all recorded history. This has dire consequences for all levels of society. The most serious side effects of capitalism, communism and socialism are dire levels of inequality and debt. Very rigorous science by Dr. Richard Wilkinson and others shows that greed and high levels of inequality where the top 20% have more than 9 times the wealth of the bottom 20% are very destructive to all levels of society (including the rich) in areas like these.
“life expectancy, on kids’ maths and literacy scores, on infant mortality rates, homicide rates, proportion of the population in prison, teenage birthrates, levels of trust, obesity, mental illness — which in standard diagnostic classification includes drug and alcohol addiction — and social mobility”
This and a vast amount of research, some more cited below, confirms the Bible’s claim that greed and extreme levels of inequality are the main source of all evils (1 Tim. 6:10), whether it be poverty, homelessness, hunger, pollution, corporate exploitation of the environment, racism, prejudice, propaganda, divorce/family breakdown, education scores declining, abortion, Darwinism, atheism, war, many untimely deaths or other tragic problems that plague our world. The Bible wisely does not ever require that all have equal wealth, the terribly damaging deception of communism that caused the collapse of nations. But God does say through the Bible and Ellen White that if we have taken care of our families needs and then see others in difficulty and don’t share the resources and abilities God has given to us with them, then we show that we don’t have God’s love in us (1 John 3:17, Romans 1:11,14, MB p. 138-9).
Since economic injustice is the primary sin that causes all evils, it also must be the primary sin that that all who love God and human life must focus on solving. And this is precisely what Bible prophets did in over 2000+ verses in the Bible as my former professor Dr. Maynard-Reid points out in this talk. The only topic spoken more of in the Bible is idolatry, which is also often heavily connected to economic and social injustice.
Throughout history, there have been numerous cases of tragic inequality and injustice. God, as the Creator of humanity, created all human beings equal and was the first source to advocate equality for all humanity, emphasizing equality in the most crucial areas of human rights, economics, justice in law, gender rights, children’s rights and others. While many talk of equality, Biblical Judeo-Christianity is still the most important foundation of genuine equality on the earth.
Dr. Joshua A. Berman (professor at Bar-Ilan University and Associate Fellow at the Shalem Center in Jerusalem, Israel) wrote a book titled “Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought” that shows how the laws of most ancient nations gave the king and the wealthy and powerful many unfair privileges. But the laws that God gave to Moses were the earliest laws that treated every person as equals.
Thucydides wrote long ago about how once government impose tyranny on foreign victims, it is not long until they impose some kinds of tyranny on many of their own citizens as well and that pattern has repeated throughout history. These unjust laws of pagan nations resulted in various kinds of serious injustices, towards both foreigners and the lower classes within their own nations. But this is also done by modern nations where political and business leaders have accepted Darwinism or other concepts of inequality and eventually oppress foreigners and then their own citizens too because they don’t really believe in equality, especially economic equality. This happened at Enron for example where Jeff Skelling based business policies on Darwinism and chopped off the lowest 10% of the workforce every year regardless of how well they performed. It led to corruption, cheating, deception and ultimately millions of innocent people’s life savings and retirement wiped out, as well as jail time for some, and the stress of it killing the CEO, Ken Lay. The documentary, “Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room” documents this in some detail (see esp. from minute 17).
Equality has become much more common as an idealistic goal and there are many who talk of equality these days. But almost no one except true Biblical believers lives it out in authentic practice. Sadly, those who don’t speak up for the equal rights of others will in time become victims of injustice…or else their descendants will.
These are some of the foundation of equality that God gave in the Bible:
“Do not take advantage of foreigners who live among you in your land. Treat them like native-born Israelites, and love them as you love yourself. Remember that you were once foreigners living in the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.” Leviticus 19:33-34
“Native-born Israelites and foreigners are equal before the Lord and are subject to the same decrees. This is a permanent law for you, to be observed from generation to generation.” Numbers 15:15
“always try to do good to each other and to all people…test everything that is said. Hold on to what is good.” 1 Thess. 5:15,21
“If you really fulfill the royal law according to the Scripture, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself,” you are doing well. But if you show partiality, you are committing sin and are convicted by the law as transgressors.” James 2:8-9
“There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” Galatians 3:28
“Whatever you give is acceptable if you give it eagerly. And give according to what you have, not what you don’t have. Of course, I don’t mean your giving should make life easy for others and hard for yourselves. I only mean that there should be some equality. Right now you have plenty and can help those who are in need. Later, they will have plenty and can share with you when you need it. In this way, things will be equal. ” 2 Cor 8:12-14
“If someone has enough money to live well and sees a brother or sister[a] in need but shows no compassion—how can God’s love be in that person?” 1 John 3:17
Equality vs. greed matters for many reasons.
1) Dr. E. O. Wilson was a Harvard biologist renowned for publishing Sociobiology. He wrote that some people are selfish, proud, greedy, etc. and this fuels competition. At the level of the individual, selfish people will sometimes win. But at the level of the group, “A group of altruists will beat a society of selfish individuals every time.”
True religion emphasizes equal opportunity for all, and that everyone’s needs are equally important. These groups become stronger and healthier and more peaceful over time. There are 1000s of scientific studies that show this in many countries.
2) JOHN NASH’S EQUILIBRIUM
The movie “A Beautiful Mind” reviews the life of John Nash who showed that the way to get the best results was to focus on what is best for each individual AND the group. He “proved a method for predicting human behavior in a way that both maximizes profit and serves customers interests… These were always thought to be competitive. By showing that seller and buyer can both work toward a balanced solution, both sides gain without either one being harmed…If you have ever been offered a larger drink or meal for a small extra fee you’ve experienced equilibrium. You get more food, while the business increases profit over their fixed cost. Both sides gain, and commerce thrives. That was not what economic theory thought prior to Nash.”
www.economist.com/news/economics-brief/21705308-fifth-our-series-seminal-economic-ideas-looks-nash-equilibrium-prison www.economist.com/sites/default/files/econbriefs.pdf http://www.slate.com/blogs/quora/2014/07/16/nash_equilibrium_how_did_the_mathematical_concept_impact_game_theory_and.html https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/microeconomics/nash-equilibrium-tutorial/nash-eq-tutorial/v/prisoners-dilemma-and-nash-equilibrium www.economist.com/news/economics-brief/21705308-fifth-our-series-seminal-economic-ideas-looks-nash-equilibrium-prison
The disparities in concentrations of wealth that we have now have never ever before been seen in history and they have destructive effects all across society for all economic classes and races. These are a few examples of the harm that it does:
PROBLEMS OF GREED, ECONOMIC INJUSTCE & SERIOUS INEQUALITY
1) GREED KILLS MILLIONS OF PEOPLE EVERY YEAR
The most terrible consequence of greed is that it kills millions of people per year. Here are just a few of the ways that it does that.
- In Dr. Wilkinson’s talk mentioned above, he talks about how infant mortality is higher at all levels of society from poor to rich in highly unequal societies.
- African Americans and other minorities die at higher rates according to Harvard. Due in large measure to Darwinism, popular thinking blames race instead of injustice for the disparities. Harvard researchers report:
The popular thinking goes that the reasons African-Americans and Hispanics nationally lag behind in income and wealth, in health and education, have to do with their own “personal shortcomings,” in the words of Harvard sociologist William Julius Wilson. “Health inequalities are the sum total of all the other social inequalities,” Williams said. “All the other social inequalities finally end up in the area of health.”African-Americans contract serious diseases sooner, resulting in 96,800 deaths that would not have happened if they fell sick at the same rate as whites.
- Black women are 3-12 times more likely to die in hospitals than white women in America, depending on location.
- Bad health habits kill ~40 million per year according to the World Health Organization. Most of these are because they don’t know or follow simple health habits such as not smoking, exercising, reducing alcohol use and eating healthier food like fruits and vegetables brings enormous benefits in all areas of life. Noncommunicable diseases. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs355/en
- Many health related deceptions are focused on minorities and the poor and kill them at much higher rates as the documentary “Fast Food, Fat Profits” shows.
- The documentary “Maafa 21-The Black Holocaust” cites many writings, recordings and other primary sources showing that many leaders in both republican and democratic parties cooperated to use eugenics and abortion to try to especially reduce black and minority populations. Other research shows that they did similar activities to try to eliminate many poor whites and/or sterilize them so they couldn’t have children.
- Wars kill around ~2-400,000 people per year. If you study into the real reasons behind them, they are almost always for greed of some type or another. 30+ documentaries showing this are here:
- Inequality kills people from the Caucasian background a great deal as well. ~500,000 die per year due to inequality according to this study.
“A recent social science paper found that middle-aged non-Hispanic white Americans (ages 45-54) experienced a large increase in total mortality between 1998 and 2013. If the mortality rate had instead continued falling on its previous trend, it would have prevented nearly half a million deaths over that 15-year period….The increase in white deaths is entirely concentrated among people with a high school degree or less, a good proxy for poverty. Meanwhile, mortality rates have continued to decline among whites with any college attendance. What’s behind the increase in poor white deaths? Well, they are dying not of disease, but of suicide, chronic alcohol abuse, and especially drug overdoses. As Paul Krugman writes, it resembles “the collapse in Russian life expectancy after the fall of communism.” Why? American poverty is increasingly brutal. Male wages at the bottom fifth of the income ladder, for instance, have fallen by over 30 percent since the late 1960s, and inequality has exploded. These days, those in the top 1 percent capture virtually all economic growth.
Other countries have responded to similar trends by building a strong welfare state: universal health care, free education and college, disability and unemployment insurance, maternity leave, a child allowance, paid vacation, and so on…But America has been extremely stingy about putting welfare where it’s really needed…Direct cash aid to the poor was basically killed under Bill Clinton. And we are nearly alone in the world in providing no maternity leave or child allowance.
Why didn’t America build the economic structures that would ensure economic growth was broadly shared? There are many reasons, but perhaps the biggest one is racism. Research shows that American voters are less likely to support a generous welfare state because of racist attitudes; historical studies demonstrate that the New Deal was politically acceptable only insofar as it excluded blacks. But we can see today that there are concrete and unintended side effects to this preference.
Whether poor whites are individually racist or not, racism is literally killing them. Martin Luther King spoke to this point, in his final sermon before he was assassinated. He related how once when he was in jail in Birmingham, he debated the white prison guards about segregation. But eventually the subject turned to the guards’ own lives (and it’s really worth listening to):
“And when those brothers told me what they were earning, I said, ‘Now, you know what? You ought to be marching with us. [laughter] You’re just as poor as Negroes.’ And I said, “You are put in the position of supporting your oppressor, because through prejudice and blindness, you fail to see that the same forces that oppress Negroes in American society oppress poor white people. (Yes) And all you are living on is the satisfaction of your skin being white, and the drum major instinct of thinking that you are somebody big because you are white. And you’re so poor you can’t send your children to school. You ought to be out here marching with every one of us every time we have a march.” [King Encyclopedia]
When King said the same forces keeping down African-Americans are also hurting poor whites, he obviously didn’t mean they experience the same racism. What he meant, I think, was that racism is the ultimate force behind a constellation of other proximate oppressions — lack of health insurance, bad schools, low wages, unemployment, and so forth — but when a white person is poor, they experience many of those same problems.
Obviously the situations of poor whites and blacks were not identical back in 1968. Today as well, poor whites are less likely than poor blacks to be imprisoned, killed by the police, die early, and so on.
But poor whites are still getting ground into mulch in this country — and it’s getting worse over time.
These are just some of the ways that greed kills millions of people per people.
2) GREED/INEQUALITY DEGRADES/DESTROYS DEMOCRACY:
Professors Martin Gilens (Princeton University) and Benjamin Page (Northwestern University) studied public policy issues between 1981 and 2002. Their research has shown that the American government is basically an oligarchy since a wealthy few control almost all government policy decisions, while legislation with low elite wealthy support and high public support are adopted only ~18% of the time and usually not on substantial issues despite much larger public voting numbers.
“Multivariate analysis indicates that economic elites and organized groups representing business interests have substantial independent impacts on US government policy, while average citizens and mass-based interest groups have little or no independent influence… When a majority of citizens disagrees with economic elites and/or with organised interests, they generally lose…even when fairly large majorities of Americans favour policy change, they generally do not get it…we believe that if policymaking is dominated by powerful business organisations and a small number of affluent Americans, then America’s claims to being a democratic society are seriously threatened.”
This is happening to countries in Europe (as well as around the globe) www.bbc.com/news/blogs-echochambers-27074746
In “Noam Chomsky: Who Owns the World? Resistance and Ways Forward”, Dr. Chomsky based on vast history stated at ~51:00 (https://youtu.be/_9CHtm2qK2g) this:
“Concentration of wealth leads to concentration of political power, almost reflexively. That leads to legislation to enhance the process, the vicious cycle, fiscal policy, deregulation, rules of corporate governance quite a lot. So the vicious cycle goes on.”
Chris Hedges documents how corporations have gutted quite a lot of American towns economically and environmentally due to desires to keep on increasing profit endlessly. He calls these sacrifice zones.
Chris Hedges on Capitalism’s ‘Sacrifice Zones’
See also: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful: Noam Chomsky & Glenn Greenwald
3) GREED/ SERIOUS INEQUALITY EXACERBATES EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN & CHILDREN
Much research such as this study from the UN shows inequality is a primary factor that opens many women (and some men) to exploitation.
WOMEN’S SOCIAL, ECONOMIC INEQUALITY LEADS TO TRAFFICKING, DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, EXPLOITATION, SAY SPEAKERS IN WOMEN’S COMMISSION www.un.org/press/en/2003/wom1390.doc.htm
Teens who can’t get enough food will easily turn to crime or prostitution to get it.
Hungry Teens Often Turn to Sex Work, Theft, Drug Dealing to Get Fed: Report
Poverty/inequality cause serious problems in developed countries, but some of the worst exploitation of women and children happens in 3rd world countries.
Trafficking of children and women in India
“Oxfam interviewed women working in a garment factory in Vietnam who work 12 hours a day, 6 days a week and still struggle to get by on the $1 an hour they earn producing clothes for some of the world’s biggest fashion brands. The CEOs of these companies are some of the highest paid people in the world. Corporate tax dodging costs poor countries at least $100 billion every year. This is enough money to provide an education for the 124 million children who aren’t in school and fund healthcare interventions that could prevent the deaths of at least six million children every year.” https://www.oxfam.org/en/pressroom/pressreleases/2017-01-16/just-8-men-own-same-wealth-half-world
“Greed produces power which produces exploitation and abuse of women. One researcher has shown that powerful people “are prone to two shortcomings: They develop empathy deficits and are less able to read others’ emotions and take others’ perspectives. And they behave in an impulsive fashion — they violate the ethics of the workplace. In one experiment, participants in power took candy from children without blinking an eye. Our research also shows that these two tendencies manifest in inappropriate sexual behavior in male-dominated contexts, echoing the accounts of the women assaulted by Weinstein.”…These findings from laboratory studies tell us that abuses of power are predictable and recurring…While I’ve been studying power, each year there’s been a new example of a powerful man sexually abusing others, and in every imaginable context — religious organizations, the military, Capitol Hill, Wall Street, fraternities, sports, the popular media, tech, labs, and universities.”
4) GREED CAUSES PREJUDICE, RACISM & DISCRIMINATION
Those who are rich don’t want people to blame them for their crimes. So they usually try to foment jealousy, conflict, violence and more between various groups of people. Sometimes they will give a few more privileges to one group than another group and then try to influence them to blame each other. Other times, they will make unjust laws to do the same. Whatever the methods, they try to keep people’s attention on other groups in society instead of the greedy rich. This is one reason why poverty and racism are almost always closely connected as this research shows.
Inequality Causes Prejudice, Racism and Class Discrimination
“In a report to the UN General Assembly, a UN rights expert has emphasised that poverty is closely associated with racism and contributes to the persistence of racist attitudes and practices which in turn generate more poverty…. According to Ruteere, poverty does not result only from an unequal sharing of resources. ‘Discrimination against groups and persons based on their ethnicity, race, religion or other characteristics or factors has been known to encourage exclusion and impoverish certain groups of the population who suffer from unequal access to basic needs and services.’
In his report to the UN General Assembly last November, the UN Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, Mutuma Ruteere, [said] that the issues of poverty and racism are inextricably linked. As has been emphasised in the Durban Declaration, he said, ‘poverty… [is] closely associated with racism… and contribute[s] to the persistence of racist attitudes and practices which in turn generate more poverty’ (paragraph 18).
Ruteere said that as the previous Special Rapporteur on racism underlined in his report to the General Assembly in 2009,
‘racial or ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by poverty, and the lack of education, adequate housing and health care transmits poverty from generation to generation and perpetuates racial prejudices and stereotypes in their regard’.
He noted that certain groups and individuals, including people of African descent, indigenous peoples, minorities, Roma, Dalits and migrants, are still confronted with poverty and discrimination, especially in the enjoyment of their economic and social rights. Groups that are discriminated against, such as Afro-descendants, minorities, indigenous peoples, migrants and refugees, are disproportionately affected by poverty in all regions of the world.’
The complex relationship between racism and discrimination suggests that only the guarantee of equality and non-discrimination can redress that imbalance and protect such groups from falling into or being trapped in poverty,’ the Special Rapporteur stressed.
According to the report, a history of discrimination has left a large number of racial and ethnic groups in various parts of the world trapped in conditions of ‘chronic deprivation of resources’ with limited choices and vulnerable to multiple violations of their rights. In many parts of the world, race and ethnicity continue to be persistent predictors of poverty.
The multi-generational nature of poverty, with successive generations inheriting the disadvantages of their predecessors, means that over the years poverty and deprivation have become part of the characterisation of particular racial and ethnic groups trapped in poverty. This in turn fuels prejudice against those members of poor racial and ethnic groups, exacerbating the problems of racial discrimination…
The Special Rapporteur however noted that states around the world have developed and implemented many good practices which can alleviate problems associated with the intersecting problems of racism and poverty. These include collection of disaggregated data, programmes aimed at increasing education and educational opportunities, laws which protect disadvantaged groups generally and in labour markets, poverty alleviation initiatives, and special measures aimed at enhancing equality between all groups.
5) GREED/SERIOUS INEQUALITY PUTS MORE MINORITIES/POOR IN JAIL
Poverty and Inequality is a major cause of more minorities and poor people being in jail, which destabilizes families.
Fixing the System: VICE on HBO Special Report Ft. Barack Obama
6) GREED/ SERIOUS INEQUALITY DESTABILIZES FAMILIES:
When fathers are put in jail, their families often have more serious economic difficulties. This can cause anger, rage and various kinds of abuse. Economic problems, lack of a father and/or abuse can lead to addictions of various kinds and people being willing to try illegal or risky behaviors as Dr. Mate and journalist Johann Hari explain:
What is Addiction? [Gabor Maté]
7) GREED/ SERIOUS INEQUALITY LEADS TO ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION
When corporations get powerful enough, they often exploit both people and the environment for profit. This article shows how high concentrations of wealth enabled some coal corporations to pressure many men into doing coal mining for low wages and getting into debt (and there was also a lot of sexual exploitation of wives and daughters that happened went on by those who were powerful as researchers have shown.):
This article (and better yet the whole series) shows how corporations produced toxic chemicals in the USA in order to make profits and that these have damaged the health of thousands and millions. They did it in America for a long time, but when the government finally instituted rules to protect people, the corporations moved to China and are doing the same thing there. In some locations, levels of toxicity in China are now 148,000 times what is considered safe in America.
I have just been in China for ~10 months and can testify that it’s so bad where I lived that many times I didn’t want to go outside walking since the air was so unhealthy on many days.
This is what putting greed first above all else does in real life and since capitalism puts greed first above all else (making it sound innocuous by calling it profit instead of greed), it is also the root of all evil..as is any other economic system that puts greed or profit first. That is the truth from God in the Bible and the truth of reality.
8) GREED/ SERIOUS INEQUALITY CAUSES PEOPLE TO TURN TO TYRANTS FOR RELIEF:
Extremes of wealth can eventually cause so much injustice and suffering that people will listen to anyone who promises relief…including tyrants. The new book “Young Stalin” explains how this was what happened in Russia. Extreme economic injustice led many to hope that communism would bring relief. Unfortunately, it brought a far worse situation. The documentary China’s Confession shows 5,000 years of history of how equality and belief in God brought peace and stability to the nation, while greed brought distrust, crime, fighting and war.
9) GREED/SERIOUS INEQUALITY INCREASES GUN SHOOTINGS
Harvard Ichiro Kawachi analyzed the homicide rates in each state and the District of Columbia. Kawachi found that as the gap between the rich and the poor rose, the rate of homicide rose along with it
In all 50 states and the District of Columbia data were collected using the General Social Survey that measured social capital (defined as interpersonal trust that promotes cooperation between citizens for mutual benefit), along with measures of poverty and relative income inequality, homicide rates, incidence of other crimes–rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft–unemployment, percentage of high school graduates, and average alcohol consumption. By using a statistical method known as principal component analysis Kawachi was then able to identify which ecologic variables were most associated with particular types of crime…
“The results were unambiguous: when income inequality was higher, so was the rate of homicide. Income inequality alone explained 74% of the variance in murder rates and half of the aggravated assaults. However, social capital had an even stronger association and, by itself, accounted for 82% of homicides and 61% of assaults…A World Bank sponsored study subsequently confirmed these results on income inequality concluding that, worldwide, homicide and the unequal distribution of resources are inextricably tied.”
Dr. Kawachi’s research is here:
The World Bank study is here:
A study done by Oxford on income inequality and violence shows a similar result.
10) GREED CAUSES POLLUTION/DESTRUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Many corporations put short term profits above people. This causes enormous destruction of the environment and at present studies show that up to 12 million people die due to various kinds of pollution per year. Just a few examples of how much harm it does.
A) Corporations that sold bananas exploited workers in many ways, forcing them to work for terrible wages while at the same time being exposed to toxic chemicals. When they got sick the corporations dumped them for younger workers.
Banana Land: Blood, Bullets and Poison – Top Documentary Films https://topdocumentaryfilms.com/banana-land-blood-bullets-poison/
B) Corporations produced Teflon in America until it was banned for being too toxic. Production of Teflon was then moved overseas to China and other countries where environmental laws are much weaker. In some places in China now, pollution levels are 148,000 times higher than levels considered safe in America.
3) People are dumping tons of plastic garbage in our oceans every year. We now have ~5+ trillion pieces of plastic floating in oceans around the planet. This is coming back to hurt people as well in quite a few ways.
There are 5.25 trillion pieces of plastic in our oceans. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1Cxkm6xP3c
Many animals are dying because of how we use plastic. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUM58LIU2Lo
An eloquent young girl talks about how adults have a responsibility to preserve the planet for future generations, but many have not done so very well at all.
Again, greed is the root of all evil. We’ve got to quit allowing greed to control the policies of our nations, businesses and other institutions in society. Survival and thriving depends on this.
 “Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought” www.amazon.com/Created-Equal-Ancient-Political-Thought/dp/0199832404/ref=pd_luc_wl_01_03_t_lh?ie=UTF8&psc=1